Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is a global project initiated by China to increase global trade and economic growth across Asia and beyond. The BRI has two projecting points: Firstly the Silk Road and Economic Belt. Secondly 21st century Maritime Silk Road.
National security is regarded as a duty of government, and refers to the security of a nation state. It includes protection of a country’s economy, citizens, and institutions. Initially considered as protection against military attacks, national security is now extensively understood to include non-military dimensions, including economic security, energy security, environmental security, food security, cyber security etc.
In the globalization of world politics, foreign relations have earned due attention. Nations cannot survive in isolation owing to changing socio-economic and political landscape of the globe. The international community is confronting with a number of issues and problems: wars, nuclear proliferation, climate change, poverty, unemployment, terrorism and extremism.
Cyber vulnerabilities pose serious risks to development, prosperity and social harmony. Cyber security has become a complex and all-encompassing political, social, economic and technological phenomenon. Since the turn of the century, the nature and scope of the internet and its users have changed fundamentally. In 1995 only 16 million of the world’s population had access to internet. Today, more than half of the world’s population is online and, among them, more than half access the internet via mobile devices.
WWI, the first practical use of chemical weapons left devastating affects to the biological species. Then the advent of nuclear weapons in the Second World War led to the mass extinction of the human species. Power struggle has led countries to develop and expand their nuclear capabilities.
Climate change is now a global concern. From more intense heat waves, floods, storms, droughts to slow paced processes such as ocean acidification. These increasing adverse effects are being faced by almost every country.
Today, nations are trying to acquire economic development through different means. The definition of power has been modified, economic strength has acquire higher value than other projectors of power. In 20th century the US became superpower and in 21st century China is trying to gain momentum against it.
In English the term CBRN is a replacement for the cold war term NBC (nuclear, biological, and chemical), which had replaced the term ABC (atomic, biological, and chemical) that was used in the fifties. The addition of the R (for radiological) is a consequence of the “new” threat of a radiological weapon (also known as “dirty bombs”).